Title: NAVARRE BUILDING
Location Current Site: Denver CO UNITED STATES
Creator Personal Name: Edbrooke,Frank E., Fentress Bradburn Architects, Prosser,John
Creator Assoc Person Name: Dulan,Peter
Creator Assoc Person Role: Photographer
Subject.Image Description: Streetview
Creator.Personal Name Label: Edbrooke,Frank E.
Description.Image Comments: View from across the street (Brown Palace Hotel). From Peter Dulan collection.
Style/Period Description: ITALIANATE
The Italianate Style was extremely popular in the United States prior to the Civil War, and later as well. It has many variations. Marcus Whiffen, in Guide to the Styles, divides 19th century Italianate into four categories: the Italian Villa Style, the Renaissance Revival Romano-Tuscan Mode; the Renaissance Revival North Italian Mode; and High Victorian Italianate. Other related style terms are Lombard, Tuscan, Round, Bracketed, and Italian Vernacular Revival. It was created in the early 19th century England by theorists of the Picturesque esthetic and by designers who were inspired by the irregular, vernacular farmhouses of Italy as they appeared in reality, and also in paintings. Cronkhill (1802), a country house near Shrewsbury in England by John Nash, was the first example of the style.
One of the first examples in the United States was the 1837 Villa for Bishop Doane in Burlington, New Jersey, by John Notman. Andrew Jackson Downing described the house in Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America (1841). Later books published many Italianate house designs. Pattern book writers recommended it as esthetically pleasing in its irregularity and also as practical for the freedom of planning it allowed. Italianate houses are characterized by asymmetry, square towers, gabled low pitched roofs, decorative brackets, and arched or pedimented windows.
The Italianate Style was also popular in the mid 19th century for commercial buildings. These were often symmetrical blocks and lacked towers, but they had bracketed cornices and windows topped with arches, pediments, or entablatures. Cast iron and pressed metal technology allowed inexpensive mass production of columns and other ornamental details.
In the 20th century, architects also creatively reinterpreted the forms of old Italian buildings. This style, is often called Italian Vernacular Revival, because of its use of towers, tiled roofs, round arched windows, and rubble masonry characteristic of the traditional farm houses or village structures of Italy. It was used for hotels, universities, churches, and houses of all sizes.
Subject Image View Type: Exterior, general view
Description.Subject Report: THE NAVARRE BUILDING, DENVER. This building, located at 1727 Tremont Street, originally housed a private school; it has served many other uses as well. The four story Italianate style structure was built in 1880 as the Brinker Collegiate Institute. One of the first co-educational colleges west of the Mississippi, it accommodated 100 students. Pupils included the sons and daughters of Denver's "First Families." The schoolhouse was designed by prominent Denver architect, Frank E. Edbrooke, and cost $20,000. Its walls are red brick. It has a hipped roof with bracketed cornice, a gable on the east facade, and tall segmental arched windows. Its wrought iron cresting and cupola were replaced during the 1983 restoration. In 1889, the building housed the Hotel Richelieu, which offered elegant accommodations and an array of vices, including gambling rooms, a saloon, and a bordello. The building soon changed hands. Legend has it that the owners lost in a poker game. The new proprietors, "Big Ed" Chase and Vaso Chucovich, were leaders of Denver's gambling fraternity. They christened the place "The Navarre Hotel" after Henry of Navarre, king of France. An underground tunnel connected the place to the Brown Palace Hotel, supposedly so that hotel guests could discretely patronize the Navarre. After newly elected Denver Mayor Robert Speer outlawed gambling in 1904, the Republican party established its Denver headquarters on the upper floor. Downstairs was a restaurant. From 1946 to 1964, Johny Ott ran the Navarre as a popular restaurant and nightclub. Local real estate magnate James G. Dikeou bought the property in 1963, and jazz clarinetist "Peanuts" Hucko operated the club in the late 1960s. In 1974, the Colorado Department of Revenue auctioned off the building for collection of unpaid property taxes. In 1979, the historic schoolhouse was treated to a $1.5 million restoration, which included installing modern systems, the removal of a porch addition, restoration of original woodwork, refinishing cast iron fireplaces, and rebuilding the historic cupola. A replica of the underground tunnel between the Brown Palace and the Navarre was also created. Architects were John M. Prosser and C. W. Fentress. They earned the American Society of Interior Designers Award for Adaptive Reuse. Intended as a prestigious office building, the refurbished Navarre instead was purchased by William C. Foxley, a cattle rancher, entrepreneur, and art collector. Foxley and his wife Sandra used the building as a showcase for their western art collection. The Museum of Western Art opened in 1983. The Museum featured work by the West's best-known artists and operated until 1996. Today the building is leased as business offices. Sources: National Register of Historic Places Inventory, Nomination Form, Denver, Colorado Historical Society, 1977; Colorado Prospector, volume 17, no. 12. (Cathleen Norman, 1998)
Creator.Biography: EDBROOKE, FRANK. Edbrooke (1840-1921) was probably Denver's most notable architect during his lifetime. His Brown Palace Hotel (1892) was featured on the cover of Scientific American, May 21, 1892. Born November 17, 1840, in Lake County, Illinois, Frank Edbrooke was one of several architects in his family. His brother, Willoughby J. Edbrooke, practiced in Chicago with Frank P. Burnham; they designed the U.S. government building for the 1893 Chicago Columbian Exposition. W.J. served as Supervising Architect of the treasury, and in that capacity designed forty federal buildings, including U.S. Post Offices in Omaha (1891), Chicago (1891-96), and Washington, D.C. (1891-99). Another brother, George H. Edbrooke, practiced in Chicago and New York. The brothers learned architecture from their father, Robert J. Edbrooke, who worked in Chicago after the 1871 fire. A nephew, Harry W. J. Edbrooke (1873-1946) joined Frank's firm, Frank E. Edbrooke and Company, in Denver in 1908. Frank was educated in Chicago Public Schools and served in the Civil War. He worked for Union Pacific Railroad designing depots and hotels, and in 1879 came to Denver to supervise construction of the Tabor Block (1880-81, 16th and Larimer) and the Tabor Grand Opera House (1880-81, 16th and Curtis), designed with his brother Willoughby. Frank stayed in Denver, designing the Brown Palace Hotel (1890-92) and the Navarre Building (1880, 1725 Tremont Place); Masonic Temple (1889, 1614 Welton); Oxford Hotel (1890, 17th and Wazee); and Denver Dry Goods Company (1894, 16th and California). These buildings and his last major work, the Colorado State Museum (1915, East 14th and Sherman), still survive. His earlier buildings were sophisticated interpretations of the Romanesque Revival style, while the 20th century work was in the American Renaissance style. Frank Edbrooke served as the final architect for the Colorado State Capitol. He died May 21, 1921, in Glendale, California and is buried at Denver's Fairmont Cemetery in a mausoleum he designed for himself. Montana S. Fallis was among the many young architects who worked with Frank E. Edbrooke and Company in the 1880s and went on to achieve prominence on his own. Frank's nephew, Harry Edbrooke, went on to design, among other buildings in Denver, the Fifth Church of Christ, Scientist, and the Rexall Drug Store at East Colfax and York. He died unexpectedly on July 1, 1946 in Lakewood, Colorado. His project at the time was the remodeling of the State Museum Building.
Sources: "Edbrooke, Frank E.," "Edbrooke, Harry W. J.," and "Fallis, Montana S," in Denver the City Beautiful, edited by Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects, vol. 2, p. 6.
(Gail Hook, 1998), FENTRESS BRADBURN ARCHITECTS.
This architectural firm, headquartered in Denver, was formed in 1980. Since then, its principals, Curtis W. Fentress and James H. Bradburn, along with their large staff, have designed buildings in 33 U.S. states and several foreign countries. Among those are many of the Denver metropolitan area's most prominent new structures: Fiddler's Green Amphitheater, Englewood (1985); 1999 Broadway Building, Denver (1985); Denver Permit Center, Denver Civic Center (1989); the Colorado Convention Center, Denver (1990); Denver International Airport Passenger Terminal Complex (1991-94); the Gemmil Mathematics Library and Engineering Sciences Building, University of Colorado at Boulder (1992); Jefferson County Courts and Administration Building, Golden (1992); and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Headquarters, Boulder (1992-98). Among the significant renovated structures in Denver designed by the firm are the Kittridge Building (1982); the Museum of Western Art (1983); and the Black American West Museum (1987). Fentress Bradburn has received more than 100 design awards, honors, and citations. These include dozens of awards from the American Institute of Architects, and the 1993 award for the Natural Resources Building in Olympia, Washington, from the Architecture and Energy Building Excellence program.
Curtis Fentress, who was born in 1947, received a B.Arch. degree from North Carolina State University in 1972. He apprenticed in the offices of I.M. Pei (1972-77) and Kohn Pederson Fox (1977-1980). In 1980, he formed a partnership with James Bradburn. Fentress is the principal-in-charge of design. In 1993, he was president of the Colorado Chapter of the American Institute of Architects.
James Bradburn was born in 1944. He studied at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he earned a Bachelor of Building Science in 1965 and a Bachelor of Architecture degree in 1967. Prior to coming to Denver, he was a designer with Vincent G. Kling and Associates (1967-68) and a project architect with Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates (1968-1980). Bradburn, an expert in the area of architectural technology, is the principal-in- charge of production in the firm.
Source: Roger A. Chandler. Fentress Bradburn Architects.. Washington, D.C. American Institute of Architects Studio Press, 1995.
(Joan Draper, 1998)
ID Number.Former Image Accession VISC: 35622
Rights Description: Copyright owned by The Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporate, and the photographer. All rights reserved.
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